The other members are Mali, Mauritania and Nigeria.Chad also has an arrangement with Sudan, dating to 2010, under which a joint force patrols their common border.However, rarely do parasites and pathogens figure into the story.Researchers from the University of Minnesota and the University of Neuchâtel think this is an important oversight, and have worked out the math to prove it.Ouagadougou (AFP) - At least five people were killed in northern Burkina Faso and one person died in eastern Chad, in the latest attacks in two Sahel countries badly hit by jihadists and militias, officials said Friday.
With Meroë and Naqa it is known as the Island of Meroe, and was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2011.
In his book, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence has Declined, psychologist Steven Pinker argues that people who live in states are less violent than those who lived in nonstate "hunting, gathering, and horticultural societies in which our species spent most of its evolutionary history." Archaeologists examining plant impressions within broken pottery have discovered the earliest evidence for domesticated sorghum in Africa.
The evidence comes from an archaeological site (known as KG23) in eastern Sudan, dating from 3500 to 3000 BC, and is associated with an ancient archaeological culture known as the Butana Group.
Chad's border with Sudan is highly porous, and militia groups from the troubled Sudanese region of Darfur frequently cross into the country.
Chad and Burkina Faso are members of a new joint force, the G5 Sahel, which aims at strengthening security in five vulnerable countries on the rim of the Sahara.
French photographer Claude Iverné, awarded the 2015 HCB Prize for his project “Sudanese photographs, the river of Gazelles,” has been exploring North and South Sudan for nearly twenty years. Iverné however deliberately choses not to portray violence and the stereotypical. “I simply want to share the things I’ve seen and people I have met in Sudan over the years.” In 1999, Iverné set off along the “Forty Day Trail,” the ancient caravan route linking Egypt and the sultanate of Darfur.